Full Project – Design and implementation of an efficient congestion control mechanism in GSM network

Full Project – Design and implementation of an efficient congestion control mechanism in GSM network

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The advents of wireless technology have had great impact on globalization of the Nigeria economy since its inception in 2001. But the tremendous growth in subscription have brought some challenges to the operators on how to tackle the occurring congestion in the mobile wireless communication posed in their services and have caused a lot of inconveniences to the subscribers. Since its goal is to provide good quality services to the end users (subscribers) with respect to speech, effective roaming globally and lesser tariffs. GSM has become more advanced and handles more subscribers than the analog systems(6). From the finding of our research, we have well over 9 million users of GSM contending for access almost at the same time in Nigeria, making the country one of the fastest growing GSM markets in Africa and the world at large(9). It is also has that the Nigeria telecommunication market is looking forward to achieve a density of 100% by the year 2020 which is driven by the massive telephone and mobile communication improvements thereby requesting for a great increase in the information and communication technology (ICT). Nigeria, with the population density of over 170 million people are being serviced by five major Global System for Mobile (GSM) Telecommunication operators which are MTN, AIRTEL, GLOMOBILE, 9MOBILE and MTEL. But among the various operators MTN has the greatest patronage with over 57.2 million subscribers although the competition is getting tighter as the day goes by as operates have to compete for the same potential subscribers(1,9). Over the years after the start of the GSM era in Nigeria, the focus is now gradually shifting from providing coverage to providing quality service; and the euphoria of owning a phone set is gradually giving way to complaints of dropped calls and congestion among subscribers.

Hence, congestion simply means a state of being overcrowded, overloaded or blocked that is too full of traffic. This occurs when too many subscribers are contending or seeking for the use of the resources at almost at the same time which eventually will result to poor throughput, slow speed and poor network among the mobile wireless communication. Congestion is when too many packets are present in or a part at the subnet which results into the degradation of performance; that is when too many traffic is offered. This occurs when the incoming packets from the source node are too much for the router to handle which makes of streams of packet arriving on three or four input lines where all of them will share the same output line(6). A system is said to be congested if it is being offered more traffic than its rated capacity due to too many active subscriber Also, Congestion control is differ from flow control in that a congestion is a global issue involving the behavior of all the hosts, routers, the store-and-forward processing within the routers while a flow control relates to the point-to-point traffic between a given sender and a given receiver. Network congestion can result when there is a rise in the transmission of a data thereby leading to a decrease in throughput.




The current trend on the telephone technology is the cellular telephone usually referred to as the cell phone.  A cellular telephone is designed to afford user a maximum degree of freedom of movement.

Consequently, there is a rapid increase in the cellular telephone density. Other factors are as well responsible for this growth and include reduction in service cost as well as the ever increasing range of services available through the cell phone. The cellular system began in the United States of America with the release of the Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) system in year 1983 (Lee, 2006). Asia, Latin America and Oceanic countries adopted the AMPs standard creating the largest potential market in the world for cellular (Mehrotra, 1997).

GSM communication revolution in Nigeria started in August 2001 and this brought a great change in the face of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) (Adegoke et al., 2000).

In the early 1980s, most mobile telephone system was based on electronics technology. Some of the challenges facing analog systems are their inability to accommodate the growing bandwidth needs in a cost efficient manner because analog transceiver cannot handle more than one call at a point in time. Also several facilities as well as services are not possible in the analog system, On the contrary, digital technology was welcomed. The advantages of digital system over analog system include ease of signaling lower level of interference, integration of transmission and switching as well as increased ability to meet capacity demands. Therefore the limitation of analog system become clearer as the number of subscribers increased. This gave way to the digital system. The GSM is more advanced than the analog system and uses digital data which accommodates more subscribers. This technology increased the number of subscriber beyond expectations.

The GSM mobile telephone offers high quality voice communications and low bandwidth, data connection for fax, short message services (SMS) as well as full dialup connection to the internet for e-mail and web browsing. The resultant effect is felt on emergence of mobile computers, the intelligent handset, the personal digital assistants (PDA) computer or intelligent handset. The need for mobile computing came as a result of the need to access information anywhere and anytime. The drawback of this system is its inefficient use of the radio resources.

The increasing need of mobile telephone and ancillary devices for data communication has driven the need for a fast, reliable and available infrastructure. Mobile communications are now showcases a wide range of services ranging from e-payment, e-government, e-health, etc. Mobile terminals are now becoming computer embedded system with stringent real time requirement for signaling and voice processing (Sconres,1997) it thus becomes imperative that numerous technical challenges bemoans its engineering and applications.


Basically the aim of this project work is to design a congestion control system model for 9mobile Communication network. The objectives of this research work are:

To evaluate the core research to congestion within the network coverage

Highlight all the possible means for congestion control to the network – 9mobile Nigeria

Implement a hybrid system that will manage congestion control within the 9mobile communication network.

To analyze the effect of 9mobile network congestion to the growth of the communication network.


This study will help us to know the status of 9mobile GSM network congestion control in Nigeria with a view to knowing areas to be addressed for better performance. This research work will aid telecommunication companies (precisely 9mobile) in Nigeria to achieve a high performance level and optimal profit. This research work is also significant in other ways like:

Use Inter-switch to put calls through to the right designation without delay, distortions or diversion.

Determine the calling network and receiving network and use this information for the purpose of interconnectivity tariffs.

Maintain a database of all registered GSM lines for all GSM communication companies.


SSADM method was used also with the Image culture of everyday activities with use of DDCM monitoring and recording system from major books. Analytical method was used in this project also, it is recommended as the best control measure for GSM congestion. This research work has made it possible for some of the key performance indicators to reach a bench mark as recommended by the International Telecommunication Union.



Congestion: It is the overcrowding of route, leading to slow and inefficient flow. In computing, it is a situation in which the amount of information to be transferred is greater than the amount that the data communication path can carry.

GSM (Global system for mobile communication): Is a mobile network is widely used by phone users.

SSADM (Structured systems analysis and design method): Is a system approach to the analysis and design of information system.

DDCM (Division of design and construction management): it provides support to branches, coordinates and manages program and project management, acquisition activities, reporting, finance and budget.

Air interface: In a mobile phone network, the radio transmission path between the base station and the mobile terminal.

Asymmetric Transmission: Data transmissions where the traffic from the network to the subscriber is at a higher rate than the traffic from the subscriber to the network.

SIM: Subscriber Identity Module; A smart card containing the telephone number of the subscriber, encoded network identification details, the PIN and other user data such as the phone book. A user’s SIM card can be moved from phone to phone as it contains all the key information required to activate the phone.

Telecommunication: Are devices and systems that transmit electronic or optical signals across long distances. Telecommunication enables people around the world to contact one another to access information instantly, and to communicate from remote areas.

Computer Network: It is a system used to connect two or more computers using a communication link

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Full Project – Design and implementation of an efficient congestion control mechanism in GSM network