Full Project – Design and implementation of diabetes patient information system

Full Project – Design and implementation of diabetes patient information system

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1.1       Background to the Study

Diabetes care requires the tracking and monitoring of many different test results and processes while simultaneously controlling risks to prevent complications. People with diabetes face complex medical regimens and often encounter numerous health professionals responsible for elements of management of the disease and prevention of its complications (18). Diabetes puts a strain on people and health systems, but the scarcity of comparable trend data makes this difficult to assess (19).

Diabetes registries and information systems can be used to stratify populations and target high-risk patients, send reminders to patients and provide physicians with feedback on their care; these are all critical aspects of an optimal diabetes registry that can lead to significant improvements in clinical outcomes (25). Other potential benefits include improving communication among health professionals, highlighting areas where better outcomes and efficiency gains can be achieved, facilitating (where they exist) the implementation and assessment of national diabetes programmes and informing future policy developments (25).

Diabetes Patients Information Systems potentially can improve care outcomes as they promote the management of the disease course, prevent complications, ensure quality, enable trends to be estimated and research to be conducted, decrease health expenditure and inform policies.

Diabetes mellitus is a type of carbohydrate metabolism disorder caused by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors and usually characterized by inadequate secretion or utilization of insulin, by excessive urination, by high blood sugar in blood and urine, and by thirst, hunger and loss of weight (Merriam-Webster 2018). 350 000 people in Finland of whom 50 000 have type 1 diabetes and 300 000 have type 2 diabetes. Around 4000 children under the age of 15 have diabetes. The number of undiagnosed cases of type 2 is estimated are 150 000 according to Finnish Diabetes Association (2018).

Globally speaking, WHO (2017) revealed that the number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. The number of adults over 18 years has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014. In the light of these numbers, dia-betes is increasing rapidly throughout the world especially diabetes type 2.

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have a different cause and different treatment, but they have common long-term complications. According to WHO (2017), diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. In 2015, an estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes and 2.2 million deaths were related indirectly to high blood glucose. WHO states that almost half of all deaths are linked to high blood glucose occur before the age of 70 years, and by 2030 diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death.

Due to this enormous numbers of morbidity and mortality that caused by diabetes, the role of patient education in diabetes management becomes more important than ever for national and international healthcare systems and organization to tackle pandemic of diabetes mellitus. The optimum goal of patient education is to enable patients to per-form effective self-care and to have knowledge of the disease.

This alarming situation becomes a challenge to public health providers, as a future nurse, the decision was made to review the available researches done on nurse´s role in diabetic management and patient education as well to find other available preventive mechanism that are used to encounter diabetes mellitus.

The prevalence of diabetes is increasing at a great rate around the world. According to International Diabetes Federation (2017), currently 1 in11 people have diabetes (425), 1 in 2 adults with diabetes is undiagnosed (212 million), over 1 million children and adolescents have type 1 diabetes, three-quarters of people with diabetes are of working ages (327 million). China has the highest number of adults (age20-79) with diabetes estimated around 114.3 million followed by India with 72.9 million adults with diabetes and United States with 30.1 million adults with diabetes (International Diabetes Federation 2017).

Besides the tremendous impact of diabetes and its complications as health burden on quality of life and morbidity and mortality, it also has enormous economic burden glob-ally. The direct costs of medical care ($851 billion per year), loss of work and wages considered as substantial effects of diabetes on patients and their families, on health systems and national economies (Zhang & Gregg 2017). Globally, around 327 million people with diabetes are of working age, 12% ($727 billion) of global health expenditure is spent on diabetes (International Diabetes Federation 2018).

However, early detection of diabetes is very crucial in finding appropriate treatment and preventing the complications and the burden this puts on an individual´s quality of life, morbidity and mortality (international Diabetes Federation 2018).

The target of this project is to design and implement diabetes patients information system for tracking and monitoring of diabetic patients.  Utilizing health information resources is an important part of coping with diseases. It includes communicative and cognitive activities like seeking, avoiding, providing and interpreting information (Naidoo, 2012). Utilization of health information resources is complex in that people’s information needs and behaviours vary over the course of their illnesses and along with the availability, format, quality and sources of information, hence the need to assess health information resources utilization. In a similar vein, Freimuth, Stein and Kean (2016) posited that, the necessity of searching and utilizing health information is affected by patient’s needs, the amount and type of information available, mental background and estimated cost. A person who believes has adequate knowledge about a disease naturally would not seek new information. Weaver (2017) identified factors that could prevent one from actively utilizing health information resources as financial problems, time constraints, hopelessness and confusion, poor physical and psychological condition, illiteracy among others.


1.2       Statement of the Problem

Diabetic patients information system plays an essential role in the health status of people living with diabetes as it helps them manage the complications that accompany the disease and prolong their life. Diabetic patients information system if properly utilized can reduce stress and increase confidence as well as help in the psychological adjustment of the patients thereby, increasing the self-management of the disease. Utilization of diabetic patients information system is crucial as it can control the spread of diseases and reduce the psychological pressure resulting from those diseases. These diseases include diabetes, which is the focus of this study.

Unfortunately, literature and personal observation had revealed that, diabetic patients information system are grossly under-utilized by diabetic patients in Rivers State despite the numerous potentials they hold for effective diabetes control, treatment and self-management. Non-utilization of diabetic patient information system by diabetic patients in Rivers state may lead them to a lot of complications associated with the disease such as blindness, kidney failure, heart failure and stroke, claiming the lives of people living with diabetes on a daily basis. This places an enormous emotional, physical and financial burden on the entire family of the diabetic patients. This observation may lead one to begin to question the coverage, format and quality of  information resources in circulation as well as what the future holds for the diabetic patients in Rivers State considering the global trend concerning information provision, access and utilization that would address their health needs. It was based on the above assertion that the researcher chose to design and implement diabetic patients information system.

1.3       Aim and Objectives of the System

The aim of this study is to design and implement diabetic patients information system. The specific objectives are:

  1. To design a user-friendly interface system
  2. To design an information system that medicine dosage form for diabetic patients
  3. To design an information system that will display medical dosage records of diabetic patients.
  4. To implement a system that will display general diabetic patients report

1.4       Significance of the Study

This study is significant to Diabetic patients at the hospital because the system will facilitate their treatment process. The study will benefit the management of the hospitals to gather information about the diabetic patient. It will be of great benefits to students who would want to use it literature purposes. It will also benefit the researcher and authors for further studies.

1.5       Scope of the Study

The scope of this study covers the design and implementation of diabetic patients information system.


1.6       Limitation of the Study

Carrying out research of this magnitude it is required to note some of the limitations that could hinder or slow down the success of the project work.

Time Factor: Time was a major constraint to the study. Due to the Covid-19 lockdown, the time available for the study was greatly reduced. When schools resumed for academic activities, there was a lot of rush.

Paucity of Fund: Secondly, there was paucity of fund. A lot of fund was involved to gather data. However, the research was able to make judicious use of the available data in order to conclude the research.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Diabetic Patient: It is referred to as a person who have a medical condition that is caused by excess sugar in the blood.

Database: It is an organized collection of structured information, or data, typically stored electronically in a computer system.

Hospital: is defined as the entity that provides the medical services to the patient in questioned at a given period of time which is basically curative and preventive and is offered in clinic unit x-ray/ ultra sound, laboratory and dental unit in the hospital

Information:  It is seen as knowledge obtained from investigation, study, or instruction.

Information System:  It is defined as an integrated set of components for collecting, storing, and processing data and for providing information, knowledge, and digital products.

Diabetic Patient information System: refers to a type of clinical information system, which is dedicated to collecting, storing, manipulating, and making available clinical information important to the delivery of diabetic patient care.

Patient Record:  It is defined as Information about a patient health treatment electronically produced, stored and accessed within a healthcare institution.

System:  it is defined as a collection of elements or components that are organized for a common purpose.


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Full Project – Design and implementation of diabetes patient information system