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Background to the Study

Teaching aids in early childhood care education can have a significant impact on children’s learning and development. They can enhance their understanding of concepts, improve their problem-solving skills, and promote their creativity and imagination. Research has shown that the use of teaching aids, such as visual aids, manipulatives, and technology-based tools, can engage children in active learning and make the learning process more enjoyable and effective.

Teaching aids, also known as teaching/learning materials (TLM), are any collection of materials including animate and inanimate objects and human and non-human resources that a teacher may use in teaching and learning situations to help achieve desired learning objectives. Educational resources assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners. They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola, 2007). Educational resources include teachers and teaching aids include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction.

According to Aromolaran (2006), three major languages are used in teaching and communicating ideas of educational subject. These languages include theory or verbal, geometric or graphical, and algebraic or mathematical language.  The evaluation of educational resources in promoting teaching and learning of educational subject in childhood care educations is indisputable. The teaching of educational subject in Nigerian childhood care educations needs to be properly handled. The materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject points at the childhood care educationlevels of our education system is undeniably a paramount important issue in practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learners.

The importance and technicality of educational subject makes it necessary that relevant human resources and teaching aids should be used to teach it to the learners at secondary level. This fact is supported by Macaulay (2009) who asserts that visual aids make lesson come alive and help pupils to learn better. It is against this background that this study attempts to examine the extent to which the utilization of teaching aids could advance childhood care pupils performance in educational subject.

Poor academic achievement in educational subject could be attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself was considered as an important factor. This implies that the mastery of educational concepts might not be fully achieved without availability and efficient use of the use instructional resources. The teaching of educational without teaching aids may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Franzer et al, (2002) stressed that a professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained, would unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality.

Researchers such as Obioha (2006) reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching in childhood care educations in Nigeria. They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions. There is the need therefore, for improvisation. Daramola, (2008) however noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perseverance on the part of the teacher, such skills are only realizable through well-planned training programme on improvisation.

However, a conceptually sound, well designed, properly implemented evaluation system of educational resources is indeed an essential component for effectiveness of educational and a key to increasing performance in educational subject in schools. Evaluation of educational resources is important for determining the reasons for effective implementation and delivery of educational policies, programmes or projects. For example, the findings of a formative evaluation process can provide valuable feedback on issues such as the planning and design of courses, as well as aspects of the content and the teaching methods employed.

Statement of the Problem

The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitude from the teacher to the learner. In Nigeria, for example experience has shown that spoken words alone in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. Every year, when the results of public examination are released, there has always been complaining of failure in the major course like Business Studies.

The reason for this could be ascribed to the fact that there are topics in educational subject that pose serious problem of comprehension to pupils. These topics cannot be taught effectively without the use of relevant teaching aids to make the learning practical. On the foregoing, scholars like Mutebi and Matora (2004) have emphasized the effect of teaching aids utilisation on teaching and learning. According to them, we learn and remember 10% of what we hear 40% of what we discuss with others and as high as 80% of what we experience directly or practice. This has been the motivation for the study to focus on evaluation of resource available for teaching and learning educational subject in childhood care educations.

Purpose of the Study

The aim of the research is to carry out study relating to Effect of teaching aids in early childhood care education. The objectives of this study are to:

  1. Determine the available resources for teaching and learning educational subject in childhood care educations.
  2. Ascertain the extent to which Childhood care pupils learning educational subject are influenced by the use of teaching aids.
  3. Evaluate the state of resources available for the teaching of educational in Secondary School.
  4.  Determine whether there is any difference in the academic performance of childhood care educations pupils in educational subject due to the availability and use of teaching aids.

Research Questions

In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions were raised to guide the investigation:

  1. What resources are available for teaching and learning of educational subject in childhood care educations?
  2. Which educational resources will influence the teaching and application of educational subject in childhood care educations?
  3. What is the state or condition of the available resources to teach and learn educational subject in secondary school?
  4. Will there be any difference in the performance of childhood care pupils in educational subject due to the availability and effective use of instructional resources for teaching and learning?

Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested for the study:-

  1. There is no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female teachers on the effectiveness of the use of instructional resources to teaching of educational subject.
  2. There is no significant difference between the responses of experienced and inexperience teachers on the effective use of instructional resources on the teaching of educational subject.
  3. There is no significant difference in the mean scores of public and private school teachers on the effective use of instructional resources suitable for teaching educational subject.

Significance of the Study

The use of teaching aids gives the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the pupils at different levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with relevant teaching aids for clarity and comprehensibility. Hence the significance of this study to the pupils, teachers, curriculum planners, educational system and the society at large.

To the pupils, the effective use of teaching aids would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question. This is because according to Nwadinigwe (2000), learning is a process through which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retained and utilized; and the only means of achieving this is through the use of teaching aids.

The study would enhance teachers’ teaching effectiveness and productivity. Consequently a teacher who makes use of appropriate teaching aids to supplement his teaching will help enhance pupils’ innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic.

The study is also significant to the educational system and society at large. This is because when teachers solidify their teaching with teaching aids and the learners learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively. Pupils will be able to understand the functioning of the economy, interpret government’s economic policies and activity and perform economically better in the choice of life and work.

Scope of the Study

This study is focused on evaluating Effect of teaching aids in early childhood care education– a study of  Ikorodu LGA of Lagos State. Due to time and financial constraints, the study is limited to selected childhood care educations in the Ikorodu Local Government Area of Lagos State. This is because the researcher has more and immediate access to the childhood care educations in this local government area and as such had the opportunity of having a comprehensive knowledge of the area and its environs.

Limitation of Study

The limitation that encountered in the course of this research study was the delay in getting data from the various respondents. Most people were reluctant in filling research questionnaires given to them due to their busy schedules and nature of work. The researcher would found it difficult to collect responses on time and this hampered the success of the study.

Definition of Terms

The relevant terms below were operationally defined relative to their usage in this study:-

  • Effect: This is the change (outcome) that is brought to the pupils by their teachers as a result of teaching and learning.
  • Early childhood education: Early childhood education, also known as nursery education, is a branch of education theory that relates to the teaching of children from birth up to the age of eight.
  • Teaching aids: These are the materials the teacher uses to make the lesson more interesting and understandable.
  • Resources: This is regarded as material or instruments that serve as source of help to the teacher to enable the pupils to understand the subject matter.
  • Teaching: The systematic presentation of facts, ideas, skills, and techniques to pupils. It is the process of effecting knowledge or skills to pupil as a result of instruction or examples.
  • Learning: This is regarded as the process of acquiring knowledge or developing the ability to perform new behaviours. It is a relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of past experience, environment, or the acquisition of new knowledge


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