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Background to the Study

The classroom is that space bounded by the wall and roof which a teacher houses his pupils/students for the purpose of giving instruction to such pupils /students. In other words, it is a shelter for both teachers and learners so as to engage in educative activities. Classroom teaching is a complex task in a complex environment. The classroom is the immediate management environment for formal knowledge acquisition. It is made up of the teacher, the learners, learning equipment and the environment. Usually a secondary school teacher is in a modest-sized room with between 20 to 40 students. Kimberly (2001) stated the five characteristics of a classroom as security, open communication, mutual liking, shared goals and connectedness.


Most formal organizations like secondary schools are aimed at effective and efficient management of the human and material resources available for the attainment of organizational goals. The classroom teacher is charged with lots of functions to perform in the teaching and learning process. One of the most challenging functions of the classroom teacher is Classroom control and control. The teacher’s effectiveness in teaching is assessed by his ability to use varied Classroom control techniques to control students towards effective and meaningful learning during instruction.


Meaningful teaching and learning cannot be achieved in a classroom environment characterized by noise making and other distractions by students. The academic achievement of students of a particular classroom can be attributed to the teachers ability to manage and control the classroom during instruction. Oyira (2006) reported that the variables that measures the classroom learning environment as perceived by students actually predicts their attitude towards schooling and academic performance.


Classroom control is a prerequisite for achieving instructional objectives and safeguarding the well being of students for whom the teaching and learning activities are centered (Kogiu, 2000). Classroom control entails planning, supervising, controlling and coordinating the activities of pupils in teaching –learning process. According to Grieser (2007), successful Classroom control enhances students questioning and exploration only if the learning environment is conducive. Classroom control techniques as used in this study, refers to tactics adopted by teachers to ensure decorum in the classroom and thus create a healthy and conducive atmosphere for learning.


Effective teaching requires considerable skill in managing the myriad of tasks and situations that occur in the classroom each day. The ability of teachers to organize classrooms and manage the behavior of their students is critical of achieving positive educational outcomes. As zeidner (1988) states: adequate classroom discipline is generally regarded to be one of the most essential aspects of education as well as an absolute prerequisite to achieving instructional objectives and safeguarding students‟ psychological, social and physical well-being. The objectives of classroom are for students to gain social and academic success in a structured environment that caters to tolerance, exemplary behavior and learning.

Effective Classroom control means implementing strategies that create a safe, fair and rule based learning environment for students to flourish in. Emmor and Evertson (1981) states that effective Classroom control consists of teacher behaviors that produce high levels of student involvement in classroom activities, minimal amounts of student’s behavior that interfere with the teacher’s or other student’s work, and efficient use of instructional time. Teachers that are effective classroom manager have; planned rules and procedures carefully, systemically taught these to students, organized instruction to maximize student task engagement and success, communicated directions and expectations to students.

Research has shown that learners‟ ability to interact effectively with peers, teachers and family members is crucial to their socio-psychological development and adjustment at school (Santrock, 2004). Inadequate socio-psychological has also been observed to relate positively to low academic achievement among learners in schools (Charles and Senter, 2002).


Statement of the Problem

In Nigerian secondary schools, the most common problem reported by teachers is those that relate to behavior management in the classroom (Igbo, 2005). The evidence is irrefutable, surveys of graduates‟ education schools and colleges indicate that sometimes in an attempt to maintain order in the classroom sometimes teachers can actually make the problem worse which leads to known implications such as; lackadaisical attitude towards learning, loss of interest in the subject and in general a poor academic performance of such a child. Considering this observation, one wonders the extent these teachers are aware of and apply research supported classroom behavior management skills.

It has also been observed that students no longer have interest in education. Since Classroom control is a keystone for students learning and has been cited by virtually every researcher and reviewer who looked at the relationship between educational practices and student results (Angell, 1991; Harwood, 1992).

If the school authorities and teachers emphasize more on how to implement Classroom control skills perhaps these problems stated above could be minimized. However, there is a need to determine the strategies teachers perceive to be effective in handling disruptive behavior in secondary schools, therefore this research work will look into better ways of implementing effective management strategies which aid in the improvement of students and also how the interest of students in the subject could be regained.

Purpose of the Study

The study examines Effect of The Classroom Control On Students Academic Performance In Secondary Schools In Okehi Local Government Kogi State. Then, the specific purposes of the study are to:

  1. Examine the classroom techniques that are appropriate for students’ learning.
  2. Find out the relative contributions of teachers’ performance on students’ assimilation in the classroom.

iii.     Examine the effect of teachers’ qualification on students’ academic performance.

  1. Examine the relationship between Classroom control and students academic performance.


Research Questions

The study is guided by the following research questions:

  1. What are the classroom techniques that are appropriate for students’ learning?
  2. What are the relative contributions of teachers’ performance on students’ assimilation in the classroom?

iii.     How does teachers’ qualification affect students’ academic performance?

  1. Does any relationship exist between Classroom control and students academic performance?


Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were developed for the study:

Ho1:   There is no significant relationship between Classroom control and students’ academic performance in Secondary School.


Ho2:   There is no significant relationship between teachers’ qualification and students’ academic performance in Secondary School.


Significance of the Study

The significance of the study are stated below:

The school administrators may use findings from the study to understand the factors affecting Classroom control and control on students’ academic performance in Secondary School.


The study will serve as a guide to head teachers and Board of Governors, parents and teachers’ association, members of the public, district education officers, district inspectors of schools to realize the effects of poor Classroom control on students’ performance.


Again, it will enable secondary school proprietors to be able to plan systematically for the provision of good classroom. Other stakeholders of education (parents, students, teachers, support staff, donors) will use the findings of study as a checkpoint to happenings of the same nature.


Furthermore, Ministry of Education will be able to renovate or build standard classroom that will aids students assimilation in the classroom. It will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and will stimulate other research as in areas of retention of qualified teachers in government secondary schools.


Scope of the Study

The work examines Effect Of The Classroom Control On Students Academic Performance In Secondary Schools In Okehi Local Government Kogi State with a view to explore five secondary Schools in Public Junior Secondary School in Okehi Local Government, Kogi State. The research study is limited to the institutions under study.


Definition of terms

The under listed terms are relevant to this research study:

Job Performance: This is the work related activities expected of an employee and how well those activities were executed.

Classroom control: Classroom control is a term used by teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behavior by students.

Student:  Student is a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college.

Teacher: A teacher or schoolteacher is a person who provides education for pupils (children) and students (adults).

Classroom: A room or place especially in a school in which classes are conducted.





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