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Background to the study



According to Ugwuanyi (2003) education is the process by which society establishes to assist the young to learn and understand the heritage of the past, participate productively in the society and contribute meaningfully for the development of the society. Emeka (2008) citing Kneller (2000) sees education as a process by which any society through schools, colleges, universities and other institutions deliberately transmit knowledge, values and skills from one person to another.

Research studies have shown that pupils who live closer to their schools tend to have higher attendance rates. This is mainly because shorter travel distances reduce the likelihood of pupils encountering transportation-related barriers or delays. Additionally, pupils who live in close proximity to their schools may feel a stronger sense of belonging to their community, leading to increased motivation to attend school regularly.

On the other hand, pupils who live in remote or rural areas may face challenges in terms of transportation infrastructure. Limited access to public transportation or long travel distances can make it difficult for these pupils to attend school consistently. This can be further exacerbated by factors such as poor road conditions or extreme weather conditions.


Furthermore, the safety of the school’s location plays a crucial role in attendance rates. Pupils and their parents are more likely to prioritize attendance when they feel that the school environment is safe and secure. Schools located in high-crime areas or areas with a history of violence may experience lower attendance rates due to safety concerns.

It’s worth mentioning that the influence of school location on attendance can vary depending on the specific context. Factors such as socioeconomic status, cultural norms, and the availability of alternative educational options can also impact attendance rates.

School location has a significant influence on attendance among primary school pupils. Proximity to pupils’ homes, transportation availability, and the safety of the area all play important roles in determining attendance rates. However, it’s important to consider the specific context and additional factors that may contribute to attendance patterns.


Location can be defined as a system within which living organisms interacts with the physical element while education location is a learning place where the learner learn and interact with learning facilities in order to be socialized and face the challenges in the society. Agusiegbe (2004) sees locations as consisting of all elements existing around man and which exert some effect on him. These include physical, biological and social attributes. Location can also be seen as aggregate of all the external condition and effect affecting the life and development of an organism.



In this study, location includes all the external condition and effects in the school that affect the academic performance of the pupil such as laboratory equipment, library facilities, qualified teachers, furniture, school building, good administrative management, teacher pupil relationship and school location among others. Location for the purpose of this work can be divided into two parts-home location and school location.


School location is the thread that connects the multitude of activities on the school. In many respects, this thread is almost invisible, yet everyone experiences its effect. Dudek (2000) opined that it could be said to be the external effects in the school that can effect academic performance of pupils irrespective of their intelligent quotient. School location can also be considered as the second teacher since space has the power to organize and promote pleasant relationships between people of different ages, to provide changes, to promote choices and activities and for its potential for sparking different types of social and affective learning (Okeke 2001). It has been generally accepted that location and heredity can hardly be separated from education in influencing performance, hence a child’s life and ability is effectd by nature and nurture. Heredity provides the natural disposition while a healthy location makes available a window of opportunities to the learner (Ohuche 2001). The location variable of the setting helps to a large extent in ensuring attainability of the goals of such setting. The location differences and the differences in the quality of instruction from one school to another can create differences in the level of knowledge acquisition of the pupils. This shows that the learning facilities children are exposed to and the socio-economic effect on them can affect their academic performance.




Statement of the problem


The influence of school location on attendance among primary school pupils is a significant issue that needs to be addressed. The location of a school plays a crucial role in determining the accessibility and convenience for pupils to attend regularly. This problem is particularly important in rural areas where schools are often located far away from the pupils’ homes, leading to potential barriers in attendance.


One of the key factors affecting attendance is the distance between the school and the pupils’ residences. When schools are situated in remote areas, pupils may face challenges in commuting, especially if they lack reliable transportation options. This can result in increased absenteeism rates, negatively impacting their educational outcomes and overall academic performance.


Additionally, the availability of infrastructure and facilities in schools located in different areas can also influence attendance rates. Schools in urban areas tend to have better resources, such as well-equipped classrooms, libraries, and sports facilities, which can enhance the learning experience and motivate pupils to attend regularly. On the other hand, schools in rural areas often lack these resources, making them less attractive and potentially leading to lower attendance rates.


Furthermore, the socio-economic background of pupils residing in different school locations can also contribute to attendance disparities. In urban areas, where there is often a higher concentration of wealth and resources, pupils may have better access to support systems, such as tutoring or after-school programs, which can positively impact attendance. In contrast, pupils from economically disadvantaged backgrounds in rural areas may face additional barriers, such as lack of financial resources or parental support, which can further hinder their attendance.


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