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Motivation is a critical component in preserving quality human resources and life of any institute that values progress and innovations in work place especially in the academia. In academia, motivation is among the cornerstones for a healthier school. Motivation has been perceived differently by different researchers in the field of education.

Motivation involves a number of psychological factors that start and maintain activities towards the achievements of personal goals and refers to reasons that underlie behaviour that is characterized by willingness and volition. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and their behavior towards subjects matter (Leedy,  & Ormrod, 2001).

Motivation of teachers and students in the teaching and learning process can direct behavior towards particular goals, leads to increase effort and energy, enhances cognitive processing, increases imitation of and persistence in activities, determines what consequences are reinforcing and it can also lead to improved performance. Bradey (2001)  is of the view that motivated teachers always look for better ways to do their teaching job and, as a result, they are more productive. Therefore, it means that motivated teachers are determined to give their best to achieve the maximum output (qualitative education).

Teachers are regarded as people who work hard enough to change the society in all they do. They have vision and a sense of direction. Teachers will do better in the discharge of their duty if they are satisfied with their job and the condition they do their job, this will increase their productivity. Teachers’ need to be resourceful and inventive in order to develop the commitment towards any given tasks and to enhance the students’ academic achievement.

Motivation can be defined as a combination of psychological, physiological and environmental circumstances that cause a person to say that he/she is happy with his/her job (Long & Swortzel, 2007). These feelings are not limited to salary, but can also include factors like the way employees are treated and valued by management and the degree to which the company takes their input into considerations, not forgetting any other extra incentives if need be. Education is widely recognized as one major indicator of development in any country the world over. One of the basic purposes of educations is to produce trained human resource, which can overcome development impediments of any given country. To achieve this, there should be a satisfied and motivated work force in the sector. Employees with high level of motivation obligate their time, bring innovations, dynamism and efforts to work which consequence lead to high productivity (Scott, 2004).

To Kousteliou (2001), motivation is an utmost interesting field for many researchers to study labour approach in workers. Due to better presentation revealed by fulfilled workers, it is the top significance of all organizations to achieve the desired goals by growing their fulfilment. Accordingly, Armstrong (2006) sees motivations as the attitudes, feelings and moods people have about their jobs. For Armstrong, positive or favourable approach and feelings about the work and the work situation indicate motivation, and the inverse, mentioning to negative or unfavourable attitudes towards the work indicate job displeasure.

The quality of the teachers, their pledge, fulfilment and enthusiasm are the element issues for the students to profit from the educational system. Teachers act as replicas, since they are the pillars of the humanity. (Jyoti & Sharma, 2009) opined that teachers support the students, not only to raise, but also to be the potential leaders of the succeeding generation, and to shoulder the obligation of enchanting their country ahead. Fulfilment with the teaching constituent has imperative significances. It indicates that the teachers are pleased, devoted and dedicated, and it also benefits them to convey their best potentials to their schools, so that students, parents, and the society may benefit from their services (Ofoegbu, 2004).

Teachers, like other personnel have ethical obligation for a complete all round development of their state. They want to be skilfully effective, efficient and fulfilled on their job. As indicated by Jaiyeoba and Jibril (2008), fulfilled and inspired teachers are significant for any education system. The achievement or failure of the education system hinge on largely fulfilled teachers, fulfilled school administrators and managers. Teachers, precisely, spend expanse of time with their students in class, and hence they have a substantial impression on student attainment (Correnti, Miller & Rowan, 2002; Jyoti & Sharma, 2009).

In the advanced countries, staff motivation  has been an issue of apprehension for many decades. Essien (2002) regarded it as an emotive reaction to a job condition and often determined by how consequence meets or surpasses anticipation.

However, in developing countries study discovering the bases and effect of staff motivation  is comparatively incomplete. Hean and Garrett (2001) and Abiodun and Gbadebo (2012) saw it as a term used to label state of innermost moods that tr collaboration with people or objects. The authors further detailed that it has also been directly replaced with other emotion words such as satisfaction, exhilaration, incentive, gladness, selfactualization delight, and fulfilment.

Kesterner as cited in Adenike (2011) postulated that almost half of new staff during the first five years of their employment leaves the field. This should be of great apprehension to all employers since hopeless and displeased employees may mean poor performance.

It is necessary that one has an understanding into the context of a theory that aligned to a particular study and from where the problem may be known and hypothesis framed. The investigators examined the social system theory since the study dealt with associations and interfaces between variables within a social system (in this setting, Colleges of Education). According to Kimbrough and Nunnery (1983) scholars in the late 1950s who were concerned with the organization of complex organizations began to view organization as a system. The underlying thesis was that to understand the phenomenon, the whole must be recognized as being greater than the sum of the parts.

Educational institutions according to Peretomode (1999) are formulations of system and sub-systems in which the mechanisms among others include persons. A system is made up of inputs and the exterior setting. These contributions include fresh resources, human capitals and assets that may convert them into outputs. The external environment reacts on these outputs through a feedback loop and this becomes an input for the cycle of the system. Although the system theory has some limitations as criticized by Silver (1983) the Lipman and Hoeh (1974), its inference for the study is very imperative since it concerns the competence and efficacy of input and process and these are the parts in which this study is concentrated.

Statement of the Problem

The ineffectiveness of teachers has really been matters of general concern in our society as the school system have been adversely affected. This is chiefly attributed to lack of motivation and incentive to teachers. It therefore contributes immensely as a serious setback in the academic performance of students in secondary school.

Teachers seem to experience irregular payment of salaries and allowances which hinder their dedication to duties. Poor salaries also affect their performance in the classroom as their promotions are not implemented which reduces their morale in teaching.

The environment under which teachers teach or work is not conducive hence reducing their interest in their job as well as their output in teaching. It is this situation that has prompted the researcher to conduct a study to establish the Staff motivation as a tool for effective administration in secondary schoolsin Onitsha NorthLocal Government Area of Anambra State

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of study was to assess the Staff motivation as a tool for effective administration in secondary schoolsin Onitsha NorthLocal Government Area of Anambra State. Other purposes of this study were as follows:

  1. To ascertain whether remuneration and incentive impact students’ academic performance.
  2. To determine whether job security and retention impact students’ academic performance.
  3. To determine if teachers’ on-the-job training have effect on students’ academic performance.
  4. To determine if teachers workload will affect students’ academic performance.

Research Questions

The following research questions were raised in the study as follows:

  1. To what extent will remuneration and incentive impact students’ academic performance?
  2. How will job security and retention impact students’ academic performance?
  3. To what extent will teachers’ on-the-job training have effect on students’ academic performance?
  4. How will teachers workload affect students’ academic performance?

Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated and tested as follows:

Ho1:     There is no significant impact of remuneration and incentive on students’ academic performance.

Ho2:       There is no significant impact of job security and retention on students’ academic performance.

Ho3:     There is no significant impact of on-the-job training on students’ academic performance.

Ho4:     There is no significant impact of workload on students’ academic performance.


Scope of the Study

The study examines Staff motivation as a tool for effective administration in secondary schools in Onitsha North Local Government Area of Anambra State.

Significance of the Study

The eventual significance of this study will be discussed under different functional headings appropriately:

Ministry of Education: The study would be beneficial to the government. As a result, the federal government as the major employer of labour would be educated on what measures to be taken to ensure that teacher’s motivation is achieved in schools. The government would be able to identify when the schools are not operating in line with their objectives and would be able to administer appropriate measures to correct such actions.

School Administration: The study aims to provide information which would present an empirical framework for school administration on the possible ways to resolve the challenges of school administration as it relates to teacher’s motivation.

Teachers and Proprietor: This study would assist the proprietor to know what and what not to do to their teachers to keep them motivated on their job. They would understand that employment is not just about an expected return but also the development of morale, build-up of character and common ground.  The administration of each schools must be involved in what goes on in the academic environment, so as to develop positive motivations in the work environment between both employers and employees. The study will also provide good understanding on the importance of positive motivation which will have a positive effect on the teacher  motivation to improve student academic performance in the classroom. This would lead to better and higher level of positive competitiveness among other institution.

Furthermore, this research will be significant in the following ways:

When teachers are being motivated, the society/ government will benefit immensely in the sense that the teachers put in their best, the students will contribute properly to the economic growth and development of the nation and the welfare of its citizens.

Parents will also benefit when teachers are being motivated in the sense that the students will be responsible to their parents and also the money spent on them will not be in vein because they will help in carrying out family responsibilities.

Students will benefit equally when teachers are motivated because the research will enable them to enhance and improve their performance.

The teachers also benefit a lot when positive motivation is given to them in terms of promotion, fringe benefit, salaries are paid at and when due, they will give in their best in the teaching process. And also their standard of living will improve.

Operational Definitions of Key Terms

The following is the definitions of major terms as they are used in the study.

Motivate: A reason why somebody does something or behaves in a particular way.

Effectiveness: Degree to which objectives are achieved.

Attributes: Refer to characteristics of the teachers which include; age, gender, qualification and number of years in the service.

Secondary School: Secondary School education is the education children received after primary education and before the tertiary stage.

Administrator: Administrator is a person responsible for the performance or management of administrative business operations.

Education:  It is the aggregate of all the processes by means which a person develops abilities, skills, and other factors of behaviour of positive (and sometimes of negative) value in the society which he lives.

Training:  Differs from education. While the skills, knowledge and attitude acquired in training are directed to improve performance in a specific vocation, that of education is a broad knowledge, skills and attitude not directed to any particular job.

Teacher: A person whose job is teaching, impact knowledge in an individual.


Student: A Person who is studying in school.


Performance: How well or badly you do something.

Classroom: A room where a class of children or students is taught.



School: A place where learners are educated.


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